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Why a Breathable Baby Crib Mattress Should Also Be Air Permeable

Breathable Baby Crib Mattress

Why a Breathable Baby Crib Mattress Should Also be Air Permeable

About Breathable:

Many crib mattress companies are beginning to market their fiber filled or plastic filled baby mattresses as being “breathable.”  So what is the definition of breathable?  When it comes to fiber and fabrics, the definition of breathable is admitting air to the skin and allowing sweat to evaporate.

Air Permeable:

The definition of air permeable when it comes to fibers and fabric is the rate of airflow passing perpendicularly through a known area under a prescribed air pressure differential between two surfaces of a material.  

Many parents believe a breathable baby crib mattress is the same as an air permeable crib mattress.  There are some similarities between a breathable baby crib mattress and an air permeable crib mattress; both admit air to the skin and both allow sweat to evaporate.  However, the air permeable crib mattress is the only crib mattress  that is recognized by medical professionals and safe sleep experts as addressing the risk factors associated with infant sleep related deaths.


In fact, the SafeSleep® Breathe-Through Crib Mattress created by Safe Sleep Technologies, (formerly Secure Beginnings) is the only breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable.   The SafeSleep® air permeable crib mattress is the only breathable baby crib mattress on the market today that is approved and endorsed by leading American Academy of Pediatric (AAP) physicians as addressing the multiple risk factors associated with infant sleep related deaths (SIDS/SUID).

In 2011, Dr. Margie Andreae and her sister Julie – the creator of the first commercially viable breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable – began to challenge the AAP’s Safe Sleep Task Force to include relevant test data proving the SafeSleep® air permeable crib mattress reduces the many risk factors associated with infant’s health and safe sleep.

The pair used scientific literature supported rationale to convince the Task Force to recognize the safety and health benefits of air permeable crib mattresses.

The AAP’s Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome technical report was originally published online October 17, 2011 in Pediatrics.

Dr. Rachel Moon, the Chair of the Task Force, maintains that there was no data to support the use of breathable crib mattresses or air permeable crib mattresses to prevent SIDS/Suffocation at that time. 


Relevant scientific test data shows the air permeable crib mattress by Safe Sleep Technologies: 

  • Reduces the risk of CO2 rebreathing compared to a fiberfill  mattress,
  • Eliminates the use of a crib sheet and potential for entanglement, and
  • Reduces Staph aureus colonization by eliminating the fiber fill or plastic core.     


Prior to the publication of the AAP Task Force report, studies were available that clearly demonstrated that the risk of rebreathing of exhaled air (CO2) was lowest on breathable baby crib mattresses that are also air permeable  (Kemp 2000, Bar-Yishay 2011).   In addition, Dr. Moon was provided with test data from Intertek, a CPSC accredited and recommended lab, showing significantly low risk hazard of rebreathing of an air permeable crib mattress (lower than the firm fiber fill crib mattress with tight fitting sheet). The data demonstrates  air permeable crib mattress have significantly lower CO2 retention.  All three reports use similar test methods and have similar results.  

While the studies of the three breathable baby crib mattresses that are also air permeable do not demonstrate a direct prevention of SIDS or suffocation, they rely on the hypothesis of rebreathing of CO2 as a potential contributor for these unexpected infant deaths.  Indeed no studies have substantiated the rebreathing hypothesis; however, this is the same hypothesis used by the AAP Task Force to support many of their recommendations including the following with quotes taken from the AAP Task Force report.

  1. Supine sleep position: “The prone or side sleep position can increase the risk of rebreathing expired gases, resulting in hypercapnia and hypoxia.
  2. Room-Sharing Without Bed-Sharing Is Recommended: “Bed-sharing might increase the risk of overheating, rebreathing or airway obstruction, head covering, and exposure to tobacco smoke, which are all risk factors for SIDS.”
  3. It Is Prudent to Provide Separate Sleep Areas and Avoid Cobedding for Twins and Higher-Order Multiples in the Hospital and at Home: “Furthermore, there is increased potential for overheating and rebreathing while cobedding, and size discordance might increase the risk of accidental suffocation.”
  4. Pillows, Quilts, Comforters, Sheepskins, and Other Soft Surfaces Are Hazardous When Placed Under the Infant or Loose in the Sleep Environment: “However, such soft bedding can increase the potential of suffocation and rebreathing.”
  5. Avoid Overheating and Head Covering in Infants: “It is not known whether the risk associated with head covering is attributable to overheating, hypoxia, or rebreathing.”


In addition, the Task Force recommends air permeable sides when bassinets are used. This recommendation is based on a retrospective review and analysis of infant deaths occurring in bassinets between June 1990 and November 2004 that were reported to the CPSC (Pike/Moon 2008). The authors identified at least six infants who were found unresponsive with their “face wedged against the side of the bassinet.” While there is no mention of any bassinets having air permeable sides in the study, the study authors (including R Moon who is the Chair of the  AAP Safe Sleep Task Force) recommends “a bassinet with vertical sides of air-permeable material, such as mesh, may be preferable to one with air-impermeable sides.”  The Task Force makes the recommendation for air permeable sides based on infants with face wedged against side of sleep environment but fails to recommend air permeable crib mattresses as being preferable to air impermeable crib mattresses to address infants face-straight- down on firm mattresses despite the continued report of such deaths.


Further the Task Force’s accompanying policy statement (AAP, 2011) recommends the following sleep surface: “Use a firm sleep surface—A firm crib mattress, covered by a fitted sheet, is the recommended sleeping surface to reduce the risk of SIDS and suffocation.”

Here the authors are stating that the firm crib mattress reduces the risk of SIDS.  Even though they list this recommendation as Level A, they fail to provide the citations that support this recommendation in the policy statement.  In referring back to the technical report, the authors rely on the CPSC recommendations to support their recommendation for the firm crib mattress:

“Cribs should meet safety standards of the CPSC, Juvenile Product Manufacturers Association, and the ASTM International (formerly the American Society for Testing and Materials), including those for slat spacing, snugly fitting and firm mattresses, and no drop sides.121”

This citation [121 US Consumer Product Safety Commission. Crib Safety Tips: Use Your Crib Safely. Washington, DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission. CPSC document 5030] is a tip sheet written for parents and caregivers.  It is not a well-conducted case-control study, a systematic review, or a meta-analysis.  No other citation is provided.  The citations for this recommendation do not meet the Level A requirements. 


Dr. James Kemp and colleagues were some of the first to study the potential for various sleep surfaces to prevent infant rebreathing (Kemp 2000).  They found that the firm mattress and four of the five surfaces designed to prevent rebreathing consistently allowed lethal rebreathing of CO2.  Only one product—a breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable—was able to maintain CO2 levels below this threshold.  The authors go on to say that “even firm crib mattresses could pose a rebreathing threat when vulnerable infants sleep prone.” They refer to studies showing that unaccustomed prone sleepers, including infants who are placed supine and roll prone have an increased risk of SIDS (L’Hoir 1998 and Mitchell EA 1999). These studies and others show nearly half of SIDS victims unaccustomed to prone sleep, were discovered in the face-straight-down position. Many of these infants were found on a firm crib mattress. Dr. Kemp’s data supports that if vulnerable infants were placed on an air permeable crib mattress or surface, they would experience less risk of rebreathing should they inadvertently roll prone.  There is no reference to breathable crib mattresses that are not air permeable reducing CO2 levels or reducing risks.


Dr. Ephraim Bar-Yishay and colleagues provided the second study on CO2 accumulation and rebreathing on six infant sleep surfaces—a breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable, two conventional firm crib mattresses and three mattresses with an additional layer or topper designed to improve air flow similar to the toppers on current crib mattresses claiming to be “breathable crib mattresses”. (Bar-Yishay 2011).  The breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable had a significantly faster rate of CO2 elimination and only the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable was able to prevent CO2 accumulation with maximal CO2 levels significantly lower than that of the other crib mattresses. They concluded that the breathable baby crib matress that is also air permeable exhibited significantly better aeration properties compared to the other five mattresses including the firm crib mattresses.  the crib mattresses with “breathable” toppers to improve airflow – now being marketed as breathable crib mattresses – actually had higher rates of CO2 than the conventional crib mattress with no breathable  cover.


Finally a US manufacturer of a breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable contacted the CPSC for recommendations on an accredited independent lab to conduct similar tests on aeration properties on their product.  Intertek was recommended because they use a similar mechanical model and methods as designed by Dr. Kemp.  The lab compared CO2 elimination on four different surfaces—the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable, a firm mattress with tight fitting sheet, sheepskin, and a bean bag chair.  The latter two are known high risk hazards for rebreathing (Kemp 1991, Kemp 1993) and have been implicated in a significant number of SIDS fatalities. Just as in the studies by Kemp and Bar-Yishay, the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable showed significantly less CO2 retention than the firm crib mattress and the high hazard comparators.  Intertek concluded that the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable represents a significantly lower risk hazard for rebreathing than the firm crib mattress.  They also compared the air permeability of the breathable crib mattress that is also air permeable to a firm crib mattress using the ASTM-D737-04 standard test method of air permeability of textiles. Based on the test data, the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable has an air permeability rate over 330 times greater than the firm crib mattress.

These two well-designed, well-conducted case controlled studies along with the independent CPSC testing lab results strongly support a recommendation for use of a breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable.  Just as the Task Force’s five Level A recommendations listed above are all based in some  part on risk of rebreathing, it stands to reason that the Task Force would recommend the breathable baby crib mattress that is also air permeable with its significantly lower risk of rebreathing than the firm crib mattress with tight fitting sheet.


The AAP Task Force concurs with the CPSC that all loose bedding should be removed from the infants sleep environment.  The CPSC and the AAP issued an alert in 2001 warning parents and pediatricians of the “hidden hazard in babies’ cribs” of loose crib mattress sheets based on death reports of infants who suffocated or strangled when they became entangled in their crib mattress sheet. Two of the deaths involved fitted sheets.  The CPSC now requires that all crib mattress sheets carry a warning that the sheet should not be used if it doesn’t fit properly. CPSC pushed the sheet-making industry to improve the fit of sheets on crib mattresses. However deaths from sheet entanglement remain a risk for infants.  In the CDC’s multistate SUID Case Registry, the mechanism most frequently reported for possible and unexplained suffocation deaths was soft bedding which the registry defines as soft or loose bedding (Shapiro-Mendoza 2014). The loose bedding is not further defined but could be a blanket or fitted sheet that became loose.  

Crib mattress manufacturers are not sheet manufacturers. The CPSC defines the industry requirements for mattress size based on ASTM standards. Their length and width requirements are consistent but their requirement for height is  six inches or less, making mattress sizes inconsistent.  Because there are no crib sheets made for a given mattress, the crib sheet remains a hazard. The design of the breathable crib mattress that is also air permeable eliminates this risk because no sheet or other bedding is used.  Breathable crib mattresses that are not air permeable, still use a sheet.

The same data used by the AAP Safe Sleep Task Force in its recommendation against the use of soft or loose bedding, also supports a recommendation against the use of a crib mattress sheet when possible.


A recent peer-reviewed article attempts to establish bacterial infection as having a major role in the pathophysiology of SIDS (Goldwater 2013).  The authors debunk the respiratory physiology model both as being unproven and inconsistent with the most plausible physiological events that take place during a SIDS death. 

A recent study showed SIDS victims, especially those found prone, are more often colonized with S. aureus than living control subjects (Highet 2014).  Studies demonstrate colonization of traditional fiber filled crib mattresses with Staph aureus (Sherburn 2007) suggesting a source for acquiring these bacteria.  While no studies are available measuring colonization of breathable baby crib mattresses that are also air permeable, the surface is designed to be removed and laundered.  The SafeSleep® by Safe Sleep Technologies, recommends regular cleaning of the surface in a conventional washer and dryer.  Breathable baby crib mattresses that are not air permeable have fiber or other fills that can become contaminated.

Based on the bacterial infection hypothesis, it stands to reason the AAP Safe Sleep Task Force should consider recommending regular washing of infant sleep surfaces and removal of fillers from crib mattresses to reduce exposure to these pathogens.

After a long evidentiary process, the 2016 Safe Sleep Technical report now recognizes the safety advantages of breathable crib mattresses that are also air permeable crib in reducing the risk of unexpected suffocation/entanglement and other hazards that may be associated with SIDS.

The AAP does not recommend the use of breathable crib mattresses that are not also air permeable to reduce the risk of SIDS and other infant sleep related deaths.

For more information on breathable baby crib mattresses that are also air permeable please visit safesleeptech.com

Breathable Crib Mattress


Patrick L. Carolan, MD; William B. Wheeler, MD; James D. Ross, RRT, RCP; and James S. Kemp, MD, (2000), Potential to Prevent Carbon Dioxide Rebreathing of Commercial Products Marketed to Reduce Sudden Infant Death Syndrome Risk, Pediatrics, 105:4 774-779

Bar-Yishay, E., Gaides, M., Goren, A. and Szeinberg, A. (2011), Aeration properties of a new sleeping surface for infants. Pediatr. Pulmonol., 46: 193–198. doi: 10.1002/ppul.21351

L’Hoir MP, Engelberts AC, van Well GTJ, et al.  Risk and preventive factors for cot death in the Netherlands, a low-incidence country.  Eur J Pediatr. 1998;157(8):681– 688

Edwin A. Mitchell, BSc, MBBS, DCh, FRACP, FRCPCH, DSc; Bradley T. Thach, MD; John M. D. Thompson, PhD; Sheila Williams, BSc; for the New Zealand Cot Death Study, Changing Infants’ Sleep Position Increases Risk of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome.  Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999;153:1136-1141.

Kemp JS, Thach BT. Sudden death in infants sleeping on polystyrene-filled cushions. N Engl J Med. 1991 Jun 27;324(26):1858–1864

Kemp JS, Thach BT. A sleep position–dependent mechanism for infant death on sheepskins. AJDC. 1993;147:642-646.

American Academy of Pediatrics Task Force on Infant Positioning and SIDS.  SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Expansion of Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment, Pediatrics; originally published online October 17, 2011; TASK FORCE ON SUDDEN INFANT DEATH SYNDROME DOI: 10.1542/peds.2011-2284

Jodi Pike, MD and Rachel Y. Moon, MD, Bassinet Use and Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy, J Pediatr. Oct 2008; 153(4): 509-512

McDonell, Emily and Moon, Rachel, Infant Deaths and Injuries Associated with Wearable Blankets, Swaddle Wraps, and Swaddling, Journal of Pediatrics 2014; 164:1152-6

US Consumer Product Safety Commission. CPSC Alerts Caregivers to Hidden Hazard in Babies’ Cribs, Washington, DC: US Consumer Product Safety Commission; MAY 18, 2001; Release Number: 01156

Carrie K. Shapiro-Mendoza, PhD, MPHa, Lena Camperlengo, DrPHa, Rebecca Ludvigsen, MPHb, Carri Cottengim, MAc, Robert N. Anderson, PhDd, Thomas Andrew, MDe, Theresa Covington, MPHf, Fern R. Hauck, MD, MSg, James Kemp, MDh, and Marian MacDorman, PhDd.  Classification System for the Sudden Unexpected Infant Death Case Registry and its Application.  J Pediatr. Jun 2014; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2014-0180

Paul N. Goldwater1,2 and Karl A. Bettelheim. SIDS Risk Factors: Time for New Interpretations.

The Role of Bacteria. Pediatrics Research International Journal. Aug 2013; Vol. 2013, Article ID 867520; DOI: 10.5171/2013.867520

Amanda R. Highet, Anne M. Berry, Karl A. Bettelheim, Paul N. Goldwater. Gut microbiome in sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) differs from that in healthy comparison babies and offers an explanation for the risk factor of prone position. International Journal of Medical Microbiology. Jul 2014; Volume 304, Issues 5–6, July 2014, Pages 735–741; DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmm.2014.05.007

Jenkins R.O, Sherburn R.E. Used cot mattresses as potential reservoirs of bacterial infection: nutrient availability within polyurethane foam. J Appl Microbiol. Nov 2007;  Epub 2007

Firm Baby Mattress and Your Baby’s Delicate Bones

Best Breathable Crib Mattress

Firm Baby Mattress and Your Baby’s Delicate Bones

What you need to know about a firm crib mattress when it comes to your baby’s delicate bones and skeletal structure.


Many adults describe their mattresses as “firm but not too hard” as their desired sleep surface.. But what does this mean when it comes to baby?  How can you know for certain if your baby’s crib mattress is too firm or not firm enough?  The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends infants sleep on a “firm” surface but they do not further define or provide a measure for this relative term.  It’s clear that infants should not be placed on soft surfaces such as pillows but what about when it comes to hard surfaces– is there a surface that is too hard for babies?


The  AAP does not offer or endorse any measure of firmness, making it difficult for parents to know if their crib mattress is too firm or not firm enough.   Fortunately,  a relatively simple test was developed in Australia that is now the standard for determining the minimum level of firmness for infant crib mattresses in both Australia and New Zealand.  This testing makes it possible for parents to determine if their crib mattress is firm enough, but falls short on determining if their crib mattress is too firm.  The test applies weight to the product and measures the amount of yield on the surface.  A firm product would have a small but almost imperceptible amount of give whereas a solid product would have no yield. 


So back to the question of are there crib mattresses that are  too firm for babies?  The increase in incidence of positional plagiocephaly or flattening of the back of the head is believed to be related to the recommendation that babies be placed to sleep on their backs to avoid SIDS.  This provides evidence that repeated exposure of the back of the infant’s head to the sleep surface can alter the head shape. The harder the sleep surface, the more resistance placed on the developing skull.  A crib mattress that is too firm can cause undesired skull deformities in infants.

So the ideal surface to keep infants safe and avoid excessive head flattening is a crib mattress that avoids putting excess pressure on your baby’s soft skull.  

At Safe Sleep Technologies our mattress was tested using the Australian method and found to be ideal for babies meaning it is firm but not too hard.  There are no direct positive pressure points to be considered a crib mattress that is too firm to cause possible skull deformities in infants

Now that you know about firm crib mattress and your baby’s delicate bones, learn more about SIDS and crib mattresses here

Firm Crib Mattress – The Truth Please

Breathable Crib Mattress to prevent SIDS


How many of you are led to believe that your baby needs a firm crib mattress to “properly” support their bone and skeletal growth?  This may surprise you, but it’s not true!

Infants have soft bones

It’s true that infants have soft, malleable bones.  In fact, their skull is like puzzle pieces that flex so they can get out of the birth canal.  Over time, their skull  fuses together and hardens.  Also, a lot of what will eventually be harder bones and cartilage, start out rather soft in infants.  Take an infant’s nose for example, their nose continues to develop after birth.  Infants are obligate nose breathers, meaning they only breathe through their nose, for the first six months.  Their nose bones and cartilage are softer than an adult which allows it to flatten and still receive oxygen.  Their nose bones and cartilage will become denser as they become adults.

Infant Growth Phases

Let’s take a logical approach to setting the record straight about firm crib mattresses.  A human’s fastest growth phase is from conception to birth – 9 months on average.   If this growth phase were sustained, we would grow two feet a year.  Looking at this rapid growth phase, are these babies on a hard or firm surface?  No, they are in liquid which cradles their developing structures including their bones.  It’s the ideal environment nature intended.

A human’s next fastest growth phase is from birth to 12 months, so why during this second fastest growth phase do you want to have them on a firm surface?  I can assure you, it’s not for proper support of their bones and skeletons! 


Case in point… plagiocephaly, also known as flat head syndrome.  This condition in infants started appearing in the mid 1990’s with the onset of the back-to-sleep campaign.  This condition is attributed to infants sleeping on their back with positional pressure from firm objects on their soft, malleable skulls.  I believe plagiocephaly is convincing enough to realize that a hard, firm crib mattress or sleep surface is not the ideal condition for a baby’s bone and skull development.   

Next, let’s look at infant hip dysplasia.  Did you know hip dysplasia is more common in first born infants?  Why?  Because a mother’s womb is the tightest during her first pregnancy and loosens with each subsequent pregnancy. 

Physicians believe a baby’s womb position can increase pressure on the hips.  The positioning of the baby in the womb can cause more pressure on hip joints, stretching ligaments.  It’s thought that babies in a normal position in the womb have more stress on the left hip than on the right hip.  This explains why the left hip on infants tends to be more affected.

Hip dysplasia in infants is another convincing factor supporting that firm crib mattresses, which cause positional pressure, are not the ideal surfaces for infant’s bone and skeletal health.

Why does the AAP recommend a firm crib mattress?

So why does the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommend a firm crib mattress?  There is only one reason the AAP recommends a firm crib mattress and that is to keep a sleeping baby safe.  The AAP’s Safe Sleep Task Force Members are aware that a baby’s ideal sleeping condition for their bone and skeletal growth is for them to be gently cradled and also to sleep on their tummy.  However, through much research, the AAP has discovered that the “safest” way for an infant to sleep is on their back, on a firm crib mattress or surface. 

The argument is infants are dying on soft surfaces and while tummy sleeping.  Babies are not dying from Plagiocephaly, hip dysplasia and other bone and skeletal issues.  A firm crib mattress or sleep surface does nothing positive to support your bones and skeletons as they develop and grow as some crib mattress manufacturers would like you to believe.

Problem with soft surfaces

Soft crib mattresses and surfaces are known to trap carbon dioxide, exhaled air, and block infant’s airways.  SIDS experts believe carbon dioxide rebreathing is the common risk factor associated with infant sleep related deaths. SIDS Experts believe some infants do not respond by turning their heads when rebreathing their exhaled air (carbon dioxide).  If an infant rebreathes their carbon dioxide without responding, the carbon dioxide eventually suppresses their need to breathe, making it lethal.

Ideal sleep surface for baby

The ideal sleeping surface for your baby is a crib mattress that does not have any fill to cause positional pressure while still being firm to prevent carbon dioxide accumulation or suffocation when your baby rolls over. 

Your baby will sleep for up to a total of 20 hours per day so making sure your baby has a safe place to sleep is crucial.  The creators of the only completely breathe-through crib mattress found out the hard way what can happen if an infant rolls in the middle of the night even if on a firm crib mattress.  The pair (a product designer and a pediatrician) set out to create a crib mattress that addresses all the issues with fiber fill crib mattress in 2010.  In 2016, their design was recognized by leading physicians as the “Gold Standard for safe infant sleep.”

Author:  Julie Andreae, SIDS and Safe Sleep Content Expert


Is Your Crib Mattress Firm Enough?

Firm Crib Mattress

Is your baby’s crib mattress firm enough?  The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends babies should be put to sleep on their back on a firm mattress.  BUT HOW DO YOU KNOW IF YOUR BABY’S CRIB MATTRESS IS FIRM ENOUGH TO KEEP THEM SAFE?

Australia/New Zealand firmness testing

The SafeSleep air permeable crib mattress is the only crib mattress in the United States that has been tested and passes the Australia/New Zealand standard 8811.1:2013 – Method 1: Sleep surfaces—Test for firmness.  This test is the only standard to formally address the issue of minimum safe firmness for all crib mattresses including bassinets and pack and play sleep surfaces. Don’t you want reassurance your baby’s crib mattress is firm enough?

Issues with safe sleep recommendations

Putting your baby to sleep on their back is not always enough since your baby will begin to roll around four months when SIDS rates are highest.  The SafeSleep Completely Breathe-Through crib mattress allows a baby who is lying face straight down to breathe normally right through their mattress.   Many pediatricians give parents false assurances that once their baby can roll, they “should be fine”   Scientific research tells us differently.  According to a recent study published in the Journal of Pediatrics, infants who are placed on their back and roll to their tummy for the first time have a 20% increased risk of SIDS/asphyxia.  These rates are even higher for babies who are swaddled.  According to published research from The American Academy of Pediatric Safe Sleep experts, death of infants found on their tummy on a fiber filled crib mattress continue to occur because we have no way to prevent these infants from rolling. 

Once these infants roll, do we know if their crib mattress is firm enough to keep them safe?

Air permeable crib mattress testing

Recent testing conducted by both International SIDS/SUID experts and the Consumer Product Safety Commission’s accredited research scientists,  prove air permeable crib mattresses are safer than crib mattresses containing fiber fill and other core materials to prevent CO2 rebreathing  and air way obstruction which is associated with asphyxia, suffocation, and SIDS incidences believed to be caused by “rebreathing.”  

These studies were conducted using a firm crib mattress as a comparison.  Even through the firm crib mattress passed the recommended “crib mattress being firm enough” test, they were shown to retain high levels of carbon dioxide which can be very dangerous to a sleeping baby.  

The test data on the air permeable “breathe-through” crib mattresses by SafeSleep has been reviewed by several neonatologists including Dr William Fox, Medical Director of the Infant Breathing Disorder Center at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia; pediatric sleep experts including Dr James Kemp, Co-Director of the Sleep Laboratory at St. Louis Children’s Hospital; and physiologist Dr. Thomas H. Shaffer, Director of the Center for Pediatric Lung Research at Alfred I. duPont Hospital for Children and all agree the data is sound and compelling.  The SafeSleep infant mattress significantly reduces the risk of rebreathing of CO2 when the infant rolls prone.  This data supports earlier peer-reviewed publications demonstrating lower CO2 accumulation on air permeable mattresses when compared to fiber filled mattresses that were considered to be crib mattresses that were firm.